what is epilepsy ?

 Epilepsy is a chronic disorder that causes unprovoked, recurrent  seizures. A seizure is a sudden rush of electrical activity in the  brain.  

Types of seizures

 There are two main types of seizures. Generalized seizures affect the  whole brain. Focal, or partial seizures, affect just one part of the  brain. 


A mild seizure may be difficult to recognize. It can last a few seconds during which you lack awareness.

Stronger  seizures can cause spasms and uncontrollable muscle twitches, and can  last a few seconds to several minutes. During a stronger seizure, some  people become confused or lose consciousness. Afterward you may have no  memory of it happening.

Causes of seizures


There are several reasons you might have a seizure. These include:

  • high fever
  • head trauma
  • very low blood sugar
  • alcohol withdrawal

What causes epilepsy?


For 6 out of 10 people with epilepsy, the cause can’t be determined. A variety of things can lead to seizures. 

Possible causes include:

  • traumatic brain injury
  • scarring on the brain after a brain injury (post-traumatic epilepsy) 
  • serious illness or very high fever
  • stroke, which is a leading cause of epilepsy in people over age 35
  • other vascular diseases
  • lack of oxygen to the brain
  • brain tumor or cyst
  • dementia or Alzheimer’s disease
  • maternal drug use, prenatal injury, brain malformation, or lack of oxygen at birth
  • infectious diseases such as AIDS and meningitis
  • genetic or developmental disorders or neurological diseases

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  • Short attention blackouts, dazed behavior, memory gaps, mumbling or no response
  • Sudden falls, frequent stumbling or unusual clumsiness
  • Repeated, unusual movements such as head nodding or rapid blinking
  • Sudden stomach pain followed by confusion and sleepiness
  • Unusual sleepiness and irritability when woken up
  • Frequent complaints that things look, sound, taste, smell or feel "funny"
  • Sudden, repeated fear or anger
  • Clusters of (repeated) "jackknife" movements by babies who are sitting down
  • Clusters of grabbing movements with both arms in babies lying on their backs

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The Effects of Epilepsy on the Body


Epilepsy is a condition that causes seizures — temporary glitches in  the brain’s electrical activity. These electrical disruptions can cause a  range of symptoms. Some people stare off into space, some make jerky  movements, while others lose consciousness.

Doctors don’t know  what causes epilepsy. Genes, brain conditions like tumors or strokes,  and head injuries may be involved in some cases. Because epilepsy is a  brain disorder, it can affect many different systems throughout the  body.